works cited

Philadelphia Public Art Database

Smithsonian Inventory of American Sculpture

Robert Musil, “Monuments,” Selected Writings, ed. Burton Pike, New York: Continuum, 1986.

George Oppen, “Of Being Numerous”

Susan Stewart, “Garden Agon,” Representations, No. 62 (Spring, 1998), 111-143.

Walter Benjamin, The Arcades Project

Rosalind Kraus, “Sculpture in the Expanded Field,” The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, ed. Hal Foster (Washington: Bay Press), 31-42.

Dexter Filkins, “Where the Shadows have Shadows,” New York Times, February 5, 2006 (with photo by Max Becherer)

Charles Baudelaire, “The Painter of Modern Life”

Earl Goldsmith’s Spirit of the American Doughboy Database

Russell Conwell, “Acres of Diamonds,”

photo credits

Photos of sculptures in Philadelphia were taken by Jena Osman.

Black and white news photos were ripped from the pages of the International Herald Tribune in March, 2003 during the build-up to war.

In Chapter 2, photographs of Ian Hamilton Finlay’s garden by Philip Hunter, 1995.

Photos of New York Times front pages (as used at the end of Chapter 2) can be found at

“Zouave Storyteller” by Gustave Le Gray, 1857.

“Zouaves in Camp” by Carl Goebel, 1865. Can be found in Hinterland Warriors and Military Dress by Thomas S. Abler, Berg Press, 1999.

“George Murray,” member of the Collis Zouaves Company B. Can be found in Collis’ Zouaves, by Edward J. Hagerty, Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Zouave Jacket, Godey’s Ladies Book

“Zouave Ambulance Crew demonstrating removal of wounded soldiers” Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865, Library of Congress

Max Becherer photo in Chapter 4

The caption for this photo on Becherer’s website is somewhat different than that written by the New York Times:
“U.S. soldiers, with the 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment, Bravo Company, question a man charged with being part of a mortar and improvised explosive device team in the Islah Zeral neighborhood of Mosul. U.S. and Iraqi Army forces raided his home and detained four other men after receiving a tip from Iraqi Army intelligence. The soldiers hoped that the detained men would lead them to their mortars but they did not. The men were taken into Iraqi Army custody and then later released to U.S. custody. One of the men detained was a Master Sergeant in Saddam Hussein’s Republican Guard, trained as a mortar man. A Mosul police station, called Four West, had received forty to fifty well-targeted rounds in the last few months by this team of men.”

ad for Doughboy statuette in Chapter 6 is from American Legion Magazine, 1929.

Ian Hamilton Finlay, “Man with Panzerschreck” in Chapter 7

Ian Hamilton Finlay, “Lararium with a sculpture of Apollo” in Chapter 7 can be found in Ian Hamilton Finlay: A Visual Primer, by Yves Abrioux, p. 62

Color photos of U.S. soldiers are considered fair use and were taken from the U.S. Army public relations website:
(statement of fair use here: The website asks that photographers be credited. Here are the captions the Army used for the photos as well:

by Tech. Sgt. Russell Cooley IV

By Tech. Sgt. Russell Cooley IV August 16, 2005
Spc. Tina Steele, from 70th Engineers, 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division, guards female detainees during a raid of a farmhouse in Samarra, Iraq. Coalition forces raided the farm after an informant tipped off authorities to the location of a weapons dealer and possible weapons cache.

Hunting illegal militia by Staff Sgt. Bronco Suzuki

Hunting illegal militia Photo by Staff Sgt. Bronco Suzuki January 08, 2007
Salman Pak Iraqi police and the U.S. Soldiers patrol the area together.

by Tech. Sgt. Jeremy T. Lock

by Tech. Sgt. Jeremy T. Lock June 6, 2006
A Soldier from the 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team secures a street corner for his platoon in Mosul, Iraq.

by PFC Hugo A Baray-Vasquez

By PFC Hugo A Baray-Vasquez October 1, 2003
Pfc. Swindell White remains vigilant inside Shuranam Village, Afghanistan, during a visit to gather information on the possible presence of Taliban fighters and weapons caches. White is assigned to the 10th Mountain Division’s Company B, 2nd Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment, operating from Kandahar Army Airfield.

by Tech. Sgt. Andy Dunaway

By Tech. Sgt. Andy Dunaway October 21, 2005
Soldiers from Company B, 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment, search a house for insurgents and weapons in Anah, Iraq.