10. Resources

Artists / Cultures

Bernini, Rodin, Duchamp, Boccioni and the Futurists, Eadweard Muybridge, Etienne-Jules Marey, Thomas Eakins, Sergei Eisenstein, Lew Alquist, sun dials, Nancy Holt, Andy Goldsworthy, John Baldesarri, Christian Byzantine art showing the stations of the Cross, cartoon sequences, film, process art, M.C. Escher, Trajan's Column, tokonoma.


Analog Digital Clock: http://www.yugop.com/ver3/stuff/03/fla.html

Barbie Starskater: http://www.barbie.com/Activities/Calendar/starskater/

Clock of the Long Now: http://www.longnow.org/about/about.htm

Bullet Time: http://vizproto.prism.asu.edu/classes/sp02/members/hamilton_d/bullettime.htm

Cultural Attitudes Towards Time

Experimental Animation: http://www.adh.brighton.ac.uk/schoolofdesign/MA.COURSE/LAnim.html

Film Schools: http://www.iohk.com/UserPages/mlau/spidfilm.html

Flip Books: http://www.shortcourses.com/how/flipbooks/flipbooks.htm;
Flip books by Keith Haring:

Frame Rate Study

GIF Animation:


Lord, John Vernon, The Representation of Movement (website). http://www.adh.brighton.ac.uk/schoolofdesign/MA.COURSE/09/LMovement.html

Narrative Time in Literature

Panix.com--Experimental Film/Video links: http://www.panix.com/~hamiltro/links/

Time Capsule project: http://www.tcfn.org/timecapsule/html/the_art_of_time.html

Timelines: http://www.internettime.com/itimegroup/timelines.htm

Time Travel: http://www.cix.co.uk/~antcom/ctwl1.html

Books on Time

Boorstein, Daniel, "Book One: Time," The Discoverers (New York: Random House, 1983).

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, The Decisive Moment, 1952.

Eisenstein, Sergei, Film Form, 1926

Gombrich, E.H., Art and Illusion, London, Phaidon Press Limited, 1960. See index for "movement."

Gombrich, E.H., Meditations on a Hobby Horse, London and New York, Phaidon Press Limited, 1963. See index for "movement."

Gombrich, E.H., The Image and the Eye Oxford, Phaidon Press Limited, 1982. See chapters on 'Moment and Movement in Art and Standards of Truth: The Arrested Image' and 'The Moving Eye'.

Gottlieb, C., 'Movement in Painting' in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 17, 1958.

Groenewegen-Frankfort, H.A., Arrest and Movement, London, 1951.

Hawking, Stephen W., A Brief History of Time, 1988.

Kepes, Gyorgy, Language of Vision, Chicago, Paul Theobald, 1944.

Kubler, George, The Shape of Time, 1962.

Male, Roy, "Introduction," Types of Short Fiction (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1962), p. viii.

Marey E.J., (translated by Eric Pritchard), Movement (Le Mouvement), London, William Heinemann, 1895.

Moholy-Nagy, L., Vision in Motion, Paul Theobald and Co., 1961.

Muybridge, Eadweard, Newhall, Beaumont 'Photography and the Development of Kinetic Visualization', in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 7, 1944, pp. 40-45.

Rees, A.L., A History of Experimental Film and Video (University of California Press, April 1999)

Steel, Duncan, Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar Souriau, E., 'Time in the Plastic Arts' in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 7, 1949, pp. 294-307.

Shaftsbury, Anthony, Earl of, Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, 1714.

Interactive Modules

IXa: Shutter Speed

IXb: Early Animation Devices

IXc: Frame Rate Study

Projects and Themes



 Please see 2D Matrix and Time Frames Project page.

Image Banks

Unit Quiz

  • Click HERE to go to an online QUIZ for the Time Frames Unit.
  • Click on single class log-in.
  • In "classword" box enter 2D and in "student password" box enter time.
  • Follow links for current assignment until you find Time Frames quiz.

Section: Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10