Compare the same bird flying at different speeds or "frame rates." Click on the text below each bird in the three frames above and observe what happens.

These photographs were taken initially by Eadweard Muybridge (1830 - 1904) in the 1880s. Muybridge was known for his "locomotion studies" of animals and humans (and his oddly spelled first name!). He produced his images as individual stills using mulitiple cameras tripped in sequence. This was BEFORE the invention of the continuous motion picture film! The moving images above are the result of showing a sequence of 41 digital images (as a GIF animation) of Muybridge's original photographs with varying amounts of delay between each image.

Other artists involved with motion photography (or "chronophotography") were the American painter, Thomas Eakins (1844 - 1916) and the French physiologist, Etienne-Jules Marey (1830 - 1904) .

Consider the following for purposes of comparison: counting playing cards (variable speed), early cinema (12 - 15 frames per second), video (30 frames per second).